Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho

Metadata:


Identification_Information:
Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Spatial Analysis Center, Yellowstone National Park
Publication_Date: 19961001
Title:
Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho
Edition: 1st
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming
Publisher: Yellowstone National Park, Center for Resources
Other_Citation_Details:
Revised February 4, 1997; This January 27, 1997 update corrects the following: 1. All references to "pluvial" have been changed to "fluvial" in accordance with geomorphological terminology. 2. Landforms names for UGB and UBS have been changed as in 1 (one) above.
Description:
Abstract:
This study aims to introduce readers to the diversity and complexity of Yellowstone's surface features. Within applied geomorphology, a landform is defined as "any physical, recognizable form or feature of the Earth's surface having a characteristic shape, and produced by natural causes; it includes major forms such as a plain, plateau, or mountain, and minor forms such as a hill, valley, slope, esker, or dune. Taken together, landforms make up the surface configuration of the Earth.". The surface configuration of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) is a complex continuum of slopes and surficial materials. To make sense of this complexity, we classify groups of slopes and materials into a set of relatively homogeneous classes. Note that this scheme reduces the continuous landscape picture to a set of classes (albeit a large number of them) within each of which surface features are relatively similar. These classes are termed "landforms." The objective of this study was to characterize the nature and distribution of "meso" level landforms and associated features for the entire park (2,196,480 acres (889,574 ha)). "Meso" level landforms are on the order of 2.5 to 250 acres (10,000 to 1,000,000 m2), and include valleys, moraine, hills, and scarps. "Micro" level landforms of 0.0025 to 2.5 acres (10 to 10,000 m2) include features such as footslopes, kettles, small terrace scarps. We judged these too detailed for the kinds of landscape level work needed in the park. We selected a mapping scale of 1:62,500 to give the best combination of readability, publication practicality, and appropriate use of available data. We characterized landforms in terms of both visible and inferred characteristics. These characteristics include: genetic origin, kind and degree of stream drainage dissection, slope gradient distribution, slope curvature (profile and plan), relief, proportion and shape of bedrock exposure, and the nature of included surficial materials. These terms are described in Differentiation of Landforms (Shovic, H. F. 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone National Park, Center for Resources, Mammoth, WY). Their definitions follow concepts used in geomorphology, as modified by mapping specialists. Results include an ARC/INFO coverage, with 6,214 polygons, and about 800 different map units, each a combination of landform, matrix composition, and presence of wet areas.
Purpose:
The objective of this study was to characterize the nature and distribution of "meso" level landforms and associated features for the entire park (2,196,480 acres (889,574 ha)). Although landforms and their differentiating characteristics are very useful in themselves for the prediction of landscape behavior, knowledge of accessory properties can enhance their value. If we know the dominant rock type and the regolith (surficial, unconsolidated material mantling unweathered bedrock), we can infer information about soil properties. For example, if the surficial material is glacial till (assumed from knowing the landform is a glaciated valley) and the regolith composition is dominated by rhyolitic rocks, then we can infer that the soil parent material is glacial till derived from rhyolite-flow bedrock, and the soil properties will reflect the nature of that bedrock composition. Likewise, if two otherwise similar landforms are differentiated by the presence of seasonally wet depressions, interpretations can be made about the possible presence of wetlands, which may influence habitat potential for species that use wetlands or depend on species that do.
Supplemental_Information:
Henry F. Shovic (1996) Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone National Park, Center for Resources, Box 168, Mammoth, WY 82190 Revision Information: The January 27, 1997 update corrects the following: 1. All references to "pluvial" have been changed to "fluvial" in accordance with geomorphological terminology. 2. Landforms names for UGB and UBS have been changed as in .1 above.
Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19961001
Currentness_Reference: Date of Publication
Status:
Progress: Complete
Maintenance_and_Update_Frequency: As Needed
Spatial_Domain:
Description_of_Geographic_Extent: Yellowstone National Park Area
Bounding_Coordinates:
West_Bounding_Coordinate: -111.1666
East_Bounding_Coordinate: -109.8
North_Bounding_Coordinate: 45.1166
South_Bounding_Coordinate: 44.1333
Keywords:
Theme:
Theme_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Theme_Keyword:
Landforms, Geomorphology, Landscape Components, Landscape Ecology, Surficial Materials
Place:
Place_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Place_Keyword:
Yellowstone National Park, YNP, YELL, Greater Yellowstone Area, GYA, Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, GYE, Park County, Teton County, Fremont County, Gallatin County, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Northern Rocky Mountains
Place_Keyword: NPS, National Park Service
Place_Keyword: United States of America, US, USA, North America
Stratum:
Stratum_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Stratum_Keyword: Land Surface, Regolith, Surficial Material
Temporal:
Temporal_Keyword_Thesaurus: None
Temporal_Keyword: Present, Holocene, Post-glacial
Access_Constraints: None
Use_Constraints:
This data should be used in a manner consistent with its accuracy and precision. No claims are made for uses at scales larger than its publication scale (see Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report).
Point_of_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
Spatial Analysis Center - Yellowstone National
Park
Contact_Position: GIS Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing Address
Address: Yellowstone Center for Resources
Address: Spatial Analysis Center
Address: P.O. Box 168
City: Yellowstone National Park
State_or_Province: Wyoming
Postal_Code: 82190
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (307) 344-2246
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (307) 344-2211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: yell_gis@nps.gov
Hours_of_Service:
8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (Mountain Time) Monday Through Friday
Contact_Instructions:
Please check web site first: http://www.nps.gov/yell/technical/gis
Security_Information:
Security_Classification_System: None
Security_Classification: None
Security_Handling_Description: None
Native_Data_Set_Environment: NT-ARC/INFO

Data_Quality_Information:
Attribute_Accuracy:
Attribute_Accuracy_Report:
We developed a conceptual perspective on the range and character of landforms in the study area through a pilot study that used three quads representing a wide range of landform groups as given by Shovic (Preliminary Landscape Groups for Yellowstone National Park, unpublished map). From this initial work, we identified 65 landforms which were organized and grouped to make subsequent mapping more efficient and consistent. After field review, we mapped nine more quads and re-mapped the original three using the current legend to ensure consistent application of concepts modified by the additional data. Concurrent field investigations, fixed-wing overflights, and ground-based oblique photographs were used for quality control. Each of the remaining 16 map sheets was processed within a week after completion of rough drafts; thus the digital spatial database was kept current with project progress. We used it as a "live" draft, making changes iteratively as mapping proceeded, printing hard copy for review and using a number of quality control procedures to assure consistency and error control. Final maps were plotted directly from the spatial database. We kept relational attribute databases current for the landform, regolith composition, and wet area parameters; i.e., as new mapping concepts were identified, they were added "on the fly" to the appropriate database and hard copies were made in the appropriate format for use in mapping. These databases were related to the spatial database before each mapping session so we could use the most up-to-date legends and flag obsolete or misnamed delineations as mapping proceeded. Since slope was an important differentiating characteristic, we intersected digital slope maps with delineations to spot outliers and help characterize map unit concepts. We produced interim maps showing spatial arrangement of map units to assure the reality of our mapping concepts. We compared our maps to other published data to spot outliers and delineations that did not fit with accepted concepts of local geomorphological relationships. For example, the maximum extent of Pinedale glaciation has been revised since the publication of most of the surficial maps. To use the newest data, we compared the latest glacial boundary maps with the limits derived from our spatial data, adjusting ours where necessary for consistency. We tracked statistics on areal extent and distribution throughout the mapping process. We reviewed map units that were small in total extent to make sure we were delineating realistic landscape features. Delineations that were too small to be depicted because of physical size or cartographic constraints were eliminated electronically. For example, water bodies were delineated to a minimum of 0.1 acres (0.04 ha) because we had no other coverage of small lakes available and this was an opportunity to produce a detailed, accurate assessment of lakes in the park. But because we wanted to avoid duplication of small water bodies with the topographic quad publication base, we eliminated all delineations < 50 acres (20 ha) from the cartographic coverages while retaining them in the spatial database for later inclusion in a lakes coverage. Database queries also identified delineation names that were potentially inconsistent with geomorphic concepts. When draft mapping was completed, we reviewed the entire digital map using queries from the attribute databases to assure all map units were included in the legend, and that all legend items were delineated on the map. We also used spatial queries to highlight various combinations of features on screen, which helped to assure that areal extent and distribution were reasonable, and to identify outliers and bad labels. For example, a glaciated upland landform was identified having lake sediments as regolith instead of the expected glacial till. Using the spatial database, we found the delineations and reviewed each one. In this case, the map unit was kept in the spatial database because it was a lake basin subsequently overridden by glacial ice, resulting in topographic features consistent with glaciation over a regolith of lake sediments.
Logical_Consistency_Report:
All polygons have complete topology as verified by ARC/INFO vs. 7.0 for UNIX. All polygons have valid labels and attributes. See Attribute Accuracy Report for information about minimum size of polygons and label accuracy.
Completeness_Report:
All polygons have valid labels and attributes. Validity means that each attribute is also present in the legend (valid geocode list). See Attribute Accuracy Report for information about minimum size of polygons and label accuracy.
Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy:
Horizontal_Positional_Accuracy_Report:
Each draft quad-based data layer was overlaid on USGS topographic quads mounted on foamboard and visually inspected for topographic consistency. We felt this quality control should enable a close match to national map accuracy standards. The information presented here was conceptually designed for use at the acquired scale of 1:62,500. However, with appropriate interpretive care, it can be used at scales up to 1:24,000, and in certain situations up to 1:6,000. Although the delineations will appear somewhat broadly defined at larger scales, polygon boundaries match topographic features on base maps. This was based on a random sample of polygons plotted at a scale of 1:6,000 draped on a digital terrain model (30 m pixel size) created from 7.5 minute USGS DEM data. The landform attributes represent central concepts. Since we have imposed a discontinuous classification on what is essentially a continuously varying landscape, each delineation has some unavoidable variation around these concepts. We describe this variability through the ranges in descriptions (e.g., drainage density and slope), and in the comments relating to similar landforms (included in attributes). As a general rule up to 15% of any one delineation may be significantly different from that described.
Lineage:
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: US Forest Service
Publication_Date: Unknown
Title: 1:44,000 Color Infrared Aerial Photography
Source_Scale_Denominator: 44000
Type_of_Source_Media: Paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: Unknown
Source_Currentness_Reference: Observed
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Aerial Photos
Source_Contribution:
Photography was used to interpret landforms. We used standard stereo interpretive methods using a 2x to 4x stereoscope. The choice of near-infrared film enhanced our ability to effectively interpret transpiring vegetation, exposed bedrock, and talus.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: Pierce, K.L.
Originator: Richmond, G.M.
Originator: Waldrop, H.A.
Publication_Date: 1971-1977
Title: USGS 1:62,500 Surficial Geologic Maps
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Washington, D.C.
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Other_Citation_Details:
This section includes a listing of the USGS surficial geology quadrangles used as the mapping base. Quadrangle coverage excludes Buffalo Lake.. The park-wide surficial geology map was used for that quad. Pierce, K. L. 1973a. Surficial geologic map of the Mammoth quadrangle, and part of the Gardiner quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and Montana. Map I-641. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Pierce, K. L. 1973b. Surficial geologic map of the Mount Holmes quadrangle, and parts of the Tepee Creek, Crown Butte, and Miner quadrangles, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and Montana. Map I-640. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Pierce, K. L. 1974a. Surficial geologic map of the Abiathar Peak quadrangle, and parts adjacent quadrangles, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and Montana. Map I-646. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Pierce, K. L. 1974b. Surficial geologic map of the Tower Junction quadrangle, and part of the Mount Wallace quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming and Montana. Map I-647. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Pierce, K. L. 1979. History and dynamics of glaciation in the northern Yellowstone National Park area. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 729-F. U.S.G.P.O., Wash. D.C. Richmond, G. M. 1973a. Surficial geologic map of the Huckleberry Mountain quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park and adjoining area, Wyoming. Map I-639. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M. 1973b. Surficial geologic map of the Grassy Lake quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park and adjoining area, Wyoming. Map I-644. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M. 1973c. Surficial geologic map of the Warm River Butte quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park and adjoining area, Idaho and Wyoming. Map I-645. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M. 1973d. Surficial geologic map of the West Thumb quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Map I-643. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M. 1974. Surficial geologic map of the Frank Island quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Map I-642. U. S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M. 1977. Surficial geologic map of the Canyon Village quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Map I-652. U. S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M., and K. L. Pierce. 1971. Surficial geologic map of the Mount Hancock quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, and adjoining area, Wyoming. Map I-636. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M., and K. L. Pierce. 1971. Surficial geologic map of the Two Ocean Pass quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park and adjoining area, Wyoming. Map I-635, U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash, D.C. Richmond, G. M., and K. L. Pierce. 1972. Surficial geologic map of the Eagle Peak quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park and adjoining area, Wyoming. Map I-637. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M., and H. A. Waldrop. 1972. Surficial geologic map of the Pelican Cone quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park and adjoining area, Wyoming. Map I-638. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Richmond, G. M., and H. A. Waldrop. 1975. Surficial geologic map of the Norris Junction quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Map I-650. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Waldrop, H. A. 1975b. Surficial geologic map of the West Yellowstone Quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park and adjoining area, Montana, Wyoming, and Idaho. Map I-648. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. Waldrop, H. A., and K. L. Pierce. 1975. Surficial geologic map of the Madison Junction Quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Map I-651. U.S. Geol. Surv., Wash., D.C. U. S. Geological Survey. 1972. Surficial geologic map of Yellowstone National Park. Map I-710. U. S. Geological Survey. Wash., DC. 1 p. (Note: Scale 1:125,000)
Source_Scale_Denominator: 62500
Type_of_Source_Media: Paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1971
Ending_Date: 1977
Source_Currentness_Reference: Date of Publication
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Surficial Geololgy Quads
Source_Contribution:
These maps were used as the digitizing base, as surficial material indicators, as polygon source lines where appropriate, and as identification for location purposes. The surficial geology maps were designed to depict surficial deposits and, with a few exceptions, generally do not describe landform characteristics or the nature of the underlying bedrock. Subsequent work has shown the extent of the Pinedale glaciation to be greater than previously thought. This information was used to update the outer limit of the Pinedale glaciation. Hilltops previously thought to be former nunataks were probably under glacial ice during Pinedale time. Also, the area south of West Yellowstone, Montana, which has been mapped as Bull Lake glacial till, is likely of inedale age.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: National Park Service
Originator: U.S. Geological Survey
Originator: NASA
Publication_Date: 19720101
Title: Geologic Map of Yellowstone National Park
Edition: 2nd
Geospatial_Data_Presentation_Form: Map
Series_Information:
Series_Name: Misc. Geologic Investigations
Issue_Identification: Map 1-711
Publication_Information:
Publication_Place: Reston, VA
Publisher: U.S. Geological Survey
Source_Scale_Denominator: 125000
Type_of_Source_Media: Paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Single_Date/Time:
Calendar_Date: 19720101
Source_Currentness_Reference: Date of Publication
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: Geologic Map of Yellowstone
Source_Contribution:
We used this map to determine the nature of the bedrock underlying landforms and make inferences about materials in the regolith. The bedrock map was not designed to account for surficial processes of erosion, deposition, and weathering that form the landscapes we see. The character of the bedrock, however, influences the effectiveness of these processes and some rock types have strong correlations to certain kinds of landforms.
Source_Information:
Source_Citation:
Citation_Information:
Originator: see below
Publication_Date: Multiple dates (see below)
Title: Additional References
Other_Citation_Details:
As background material, we used a reconnaissance survey of major landforms for northern Yellowstone National Park (Shovic et al. 1987). A draft version has been completed for the remainder (Shovic, H., Preliminary Landscape Groups for Yellowstone National Park, unpublished map). A detailed inventory of landscapes for about 5% of the park has been published (Shovic et al. 1991). We used other geological publications describing various features and their geologic relationships (Keefer 1971, Parsons 1978, Harris 1980, Reid and Foote 1982, White et al. 1988). Some of these address landforms in specific areas and others cover parkwide but generalized surface features. This section includes other references and their uses in the mapping project. Harris, D. V., 1980, "The Geologic Story of the National Parks and Monuments," John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York. Keefer, W. R., 1971, "The Geologic Story of Yellowstone National Park," U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1347. Parsons, W. H., 1978, "Field Guide: Middle Rockies and Yellowstone," Kendall Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa. Reid, S. G., and D. J. Foote, 1982, "Geology of Yellowstone National Park Area," Wyoming Geological Association, 33rd Annual Field Conference Guidebook, Casper, Wyoming. Shovic, H. F., J. Mohrman, and R. Ewing, 1987, "Major Erosive Lands in the Upper Yellowstone River Drainage Basin from Livingston, Montana to Yellowstone Lake Outlet, Yellowstone National Park," Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Shovic, H. F, A. Rodman, and D. Neprud, 1991, "Soils Investigation of the Reese Creek-McMinn Bench-Mammoth Area: Northwestern Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming," Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. White, D. E., R. A. Hutchinson, and T. E .C. Keith, 1988, "The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming," Prof. Pap. 1456. U.S. Geol. Surv., U.S.G.P.O, Washington, D.C. /// Dikau, R, 1989, "The Application of a Digital Relief Model to Landform Analysis in Geomorphology," Pages 51-79 in J. Raper, ed, "Three Dimensional Applications in Geographic Information Systems," Taylor and Francis, London. Pierce, K. L, 1979, "History and Dynamics of Glaciation in the Northern Yellowstone National Park Area, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 729-F. U.S.G.P.O., Washington, D.C. Ray, R. G, 1984, "Aerial Photographs in Geologic Interpretations and Mapping," U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 373, Seventh printing, U.S.G.P.O., Washington, D.C. Thornbury, W. D, 1969, "Principles of Geomorphology," John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York. Way, D. S, 1973, "Terrain Analysis," Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Wolf, P. R, 1974, "Elements of Photogrammetry (With Air Photograph Interpretation and Remote Sensing)," McGraw-Hill, New York, New York.
Type_of_Source_Media: Paper
Source_Time_Period_of_Content:
Time_Period_Information:
Range_of_Dates/Times:
Beginning_Date: 1970
Ending_Date: 1995
Source_Currentness_Reference: Date of Publication
Source_Citation_Abbreviation: landform
Source_Contribution: Used as bacground material.
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
standard stereo color infrared aerial photography interpretation using a 2x to 4x stereoscope
Process_Date: 19950101
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
USGS surficial geologic maps (scale 1:62,500) were used as the mapping base, both to give a consistent scale, to provide high quality georegistration, and to best utilize their information. We mapped delineations on mylar registered directly to those quadrangles, hereinafter referred to as "quads". They were first mounted on inch foamboard to give maximum stability and consistency of scale. Spatial data for each quad was digitized directly from this mylar/ foamboard map combination. A standard set of tics were generated for the quads, and each digitized layer was "stretched" to fit, using eight tic marks per map quad. Arcs and labels of polygons on quad edges were then edgematched to their respective adjoining quads, their boundaries dissolved, and the data appended to a master coverage. Each draft quad-based data layer was overlaid on USGS topographic quads mounted on foamboard and visually inspected for topographic consistency. We felt this quality control should enable a close match to national map accuracy standards.
Process_Date: 19950101
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
We developed a conceptual perspective on the range and character of landforms in the study area through a pilot study that used three quads representing a wide range of landform groups. From this initial work, we identified 65 landforms which were organized and grouped to make subsequent mapping more efficient and consistent. After field review, we mapped nine more quads and re-mapped the original three using the current legend to ensure consistent application of concepts modified by the additional data. Concurrent field investigations, fixed-wing overflights, and ground-based oblique photographs were used for quality control. Each of the remaining 16 map sheets was processed within a week after completion of rough drafts; thus the digital spatial database was kept current with project progress.
Process_Date: 19950101
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
We kept relational attribute databases current for the landform, regolith composition, and wet area parameters; i.e., as new mapping concepts were identified, they were added "on the fly" to the appropriate database and hard copies were made in the appropriate format for use in mapping. These databases were related to the spatial database before each mapping session so we could use the most up-to-date legends and flag obsolete or misnamed delineations as mapping proceeded.
Process_Date: 19950101
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Since slope was an important differentiating characteristic, we intersected digital slope maps with delineations to spot outliers and help characterize map unit concepts.
Process_Date: 19950101
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Quality Control : We produced interim maps showing spatial arrangement of map units to assure the reality of our mapping concepts. We compared our maps to other published data to spot outliers and delineations that did not fit with accepted concepts of local geomorphological relationships. For example, the maximum extent of Pinedale glaciation has been revised since the publication of most of the surficial maps (Ken Pierce, USGS, personal communication). To use the newest data, we compared the latest glacial boundary maps with the limits derived from our spatial data, adjusting ours where necessary for consistency. We tracked statistics on areal extent and distribution throughout the mapping process. We reviewed map units that were small in total extent to make sure we were delineating realistic landscape features. Delineations that were too small to be depicted because of physical size or cartographic constraints were eliminated electronically. For example, water bodies were delineated to a minimum of 0.1 acres (0.04 ha) because we had no other coverage of small lakes available and this was an opportunity to produce a detailed, accurate assessment of lakes in the park. But because we wanted to avoid duplication of small water bodies with the topographic quad publication base, we eliminated all delineations < 50 acres (20 ha) from the cartographic coverages while retaining them in the spatial database for later inclusion in a lakes coverage. Database queries also identified delineation names that were potentially inconsistent with geomorphic concepts. When draft mapping was completed, we reviewed the entire digital map using queries from the attribute databases to assure all map units were included in the legend, and that all legend items were delineated on the map. We also used spatial queries to highlight various combinations of features on screen, which helped to assure that areal extent and distribution were reasonable, and to identify outliers and bad labels. For example, a glaciated upland landform was identified having lake sediments as regolith instead of the expected glacial till. Using the spatial database, we found the delineations and reviewed each one. In this case, the map unit was kept in the spatial database because it was a lake basin subsequently overridden by glacial ice, resulting in topographic features consistent with glaciation over a regolith of lake sediments.
Process_Date: 19950101
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
The final cartographic symbology was produced electronically, including label placement, size, neatlines, names of adjoining quads, border labels, and titles. Manual editing on-screen was still necessary, but most of the work in producing photo-ready mylar overlays was done electronically. The final map-unit descriptive legend and associated descriptive tables were printed directly from the relational databases in photo-ready format. Final statistics on aerial extent were produced from the spatial data. Final quad-based maps were electronically clipped from the continuous master spatial database, minimizing label and line errors between the borders of final map sheets. We manually reviewed every quad map to assure readability, accuracy of mapping concepts and their application on the landscape, and proper placement of annotation.
Process_Date: 19950101
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
Differentiation of Landforms : Differentiating and Accessory Characteristics : Each landform is defined by a unique combination of "differentiating" characteristics that make it visually different from all other landforms. Although all associated characteristics are "accessory" to that landform, only a few are "differentiating." For example, one strongly associated characteristic of a glacial trough bottom with weak dissection is the occurrence of glacial till as a surficial material. As such it is accessory to that landform. But because other glacial landforms may also be covered with glacial till, this characteristic is not differentiating for a glacial trough bottom. However, no other glacial trough bottom landform has weak dissection (given that all other characteristics are equal) because degree of stream dissection is differentiating, as well as accessory. The accessory characteristics are genetic origin, kind and degree of stream drainage dissection, slope gradient distribution, slope curvature (profile and plan), relief, proportion and shape of bedrock exposure, and included surficial materials. Any of the selected characteristics may be differentiating, but the most commonly used are those directly visible in aerial photography. Surficial materials and genetic origin are occasionally used if landforms that are similar in differentiating characteristics need to be separated for interpretive purposes, or if aerial photo data are not sensitive enough to segregate landforms that field investigations show need to be distinct. Below we discuss Genetic Origin and its use in defining landform groups, subgroups, and names , Stream Drainage Dissection (as an introduction), and Slope Arrangement (used in landform groups and subgroups). The remainder of the accessory characteristics of landforms are discussed under Attributes. See the Glossary (Appendix 4) for more information. Genetic Origin : We assigned each landform a probable genetic origin which represents the dominant formative process responsible for its physical characteristics. This accessory property is used in landform groups, subgroups, and name Attributes. The major processes occurring in Yellowstone National Park are glaciation, glaciofluvial alluviation, non-glaciofluvial alluviation, fluviation, mass wasting, and hydrothermal modification. Although the formative processes are more often complex than simple, and most of Yellowstone's landforms have been determined by multiple processes acting at different times with differing intensities, the most visibly dominant process was used for this study. Evidence for each kind of process came from information on the surficial and bedrock geologic maps, topographic maps, existing publications, aerial photography, and field investigations. Glaciation includes the direct effects of glacial erosion and deposition, and peri-glacial processes such as frost churning and solifluction. Aerial photos showed glacial troughs, cirques, flow features, scour and deposition on uplands, or other evidence of glacial activity. Surficial maps showed presence of glacial till, solifluction or frost-affected deposits with estimated thickness, as well as the relative age of deposits. Field investigations, consultation, topographic data, and geologic literature confirmed that all landforms having these processes fall within accepted geographic and elevational limits of glaciation. Glaciofluvial alluviation is directly related to the movement of glacial meltwater, either during glaciation or relatively soon thereafter. Surficial maps showed presence of glaciofluvial materials (e.g., kame material, outwash deposits, flood deposits, or lake sediments) and landform characteristics that are consistent with their glaciofluvial origin (e.g., kames, outwash plains, flood bars, or lake beds). If near present streams, the glaciofluvial materials are significantly higher in elevation than the present stream flood plain or channel. In cases where these materials have been strongly modified by post-glacial fluvial processes, recent alluvial processes, or mass wasting, the landform was assigned the process that appeared to dominate its characteristics (e.g., fluvial hills, stream flood plain). Non-glaciofluvial alluviation refers to recent sub-aerial deposition or formation of alluvium (stratified stream sediments) in or near stream courses, excluding sediments deposited durng or immediately after glacial time periods. Deposits are near or at the elevation of the present stream level. Fluviation pertains to the effects of precipitation and the associated long-term weathering of materials in place, yearly snowmelt, rain, and the downhill movement of material by gully, rill, or sheet erosion, as well as slow surface-mantle creep with attendant removal of material by streams. Any surficial material may have these characteristics, regardless of its initial origin. The term "fluviation" is not entirely satisfactory since it emphasizes the actions of rivers, but it is used as the nearest approximation to the processes involved (Thornbury 1969). Mass wasting is a general term that refers to the dislodgment and down-slope transport of soil and rock material as a direct result of gravity. Unlike other erosion processes, the debris removed by mass wasting is not carried within, on, or under another medium possessing contrasting processes. It includes slow displacements such as the formation of colluvial slopes and solifluction, and rapid movements such as landslides. Slow soil-mantle creep is not included because it is considered a fluvial process. Hydrothermal modification has been occurring since long before the last glaciation, and is characterized by variability in space, time, intensity, and effects. Yellowstone has a high concentration of hydrothermal activity (Keefer 1971, White et al. 1988). Some areas have been modified to such an extent that the erosional or depositional effects of hydrothermal processes apparently dominate the landforms characteristics. These areas often take on the characteristics of other landforms (e.g., breaklands, valleys, uplands, basins), but they are largely composed of hydrothermally altered surficial materials or bedrock and apparently originated in hydrothermal activity Landform Groupings : Though each landform has a unique set of characteristics, we found that placing the landforms in a genetic hierarchy was useful for three reasons. First, a conceptual framework is vital to transmit the maximum information to the user. Through association with glacial processes, the term "glacial outwash plain" conveys much more than does the description, "flat, finely dissected plain." Secondly, since we anticipated identifying many different landforms, we were concerned about the difficulty of keeping them all in mind as each new area is reviewed for classification. Use of a hierarchical grouping provides relatively few choices at each level, making it possible to quickly select the right landform class or create a new one as needed. Finally, classification of mode of development (genesis) has a high predictive value for important accessory characteristics. For example, a landform described as a trough-shaped valley indicates a general hydrologic character and surficial bedrock occurrence. However, if it is also known that it has a recent glacial genesis, we can infer the character of the regolith and the probable stability of stream channels. The classification hierarchy was based on a subset of differentiating characteristics that group landforms having similar formative modes. We chose a structure that reflects formative processes that are dominant in the study area and arranged the characteristics in a deductive order. The hierarchy is made up of "Divisions," "Groups," and "Subgroups." The Division level is made up of two classes relating to major landforming processes (Glacial and Non-Glacial). Within these two divisions, groups are defined according to the basic characteristics of the landscape. Process is considered as well as the overall shape of the landforms. Within these groups, the subgroups further divide characteristics, leaving a manageable number of choices for the selection of individual landforms. Glacial Division : In this division, surface appearance is dominated by features associated with glaciation or glaciofluvial alluviation. The surface arrangement of included materials is glacial in origin, though the nature of the materials themselves may have resulted from non-glacial processes such as mass wasting. Post-glacial fluviation has affected these landforms to varying degrees, evidenced by stream dissection. The groups and their included subgroups are listed below and are described in the Attribute section. Glacial Troughs and Cirques: Cirques | Glacial Troughs and Cirques: Glacial Complexes | Glacial Troughs and Cirques: Trough Valley Bottoms | Glacial Troughs and Cirques: Trough Valley Walls | Glaciated Uplands: Concave Uplands | Glaciated Uplands: High Relief Uplands | Glaciated Uplands: Hills | Glaciated Uplands: Plateaus | Glaciated Uplands: Ridgetops | Glaciated Uplands: Rolling Uplands | Glaciofluvial Landforms: Kame/ Outwash Complexes | Glaciofluvial Landforms: Kames and Bars | Glaciofluvial Landforms: Terraces, Plains, and Flats | Non-Glacial Division : This division includes lands dominated by features associated with non-glacial processes such as fluviation, alluviation, post-glacial hydrothermal activity, or mass wasting. The present arrangement of surficial materials is not glacial in origin, but their character materials may have some glacial influence. The groups and their included subgroups are listed below and are described in the Attribute section. | Alluvial Landforms: No subgroups | Fluvial Uplands: High Relief Uplands | Fluvial Uplands: Hills and Bluffs | Fluvial Uplands: Plateaus | Fluvial Uplands: Rolling Uplands | Fluvial Uplands: Stream Breaks | Hydrothermal Landforms: No subgroups | Mass Wasting Landforms: Coarse Textured Colluvium | Mass Wasting Landforms: Landslides | Water Bodies: No subgroups | STREAM DISSECTION : The degree to which streams have modified the landscape is important and highly visible, both in terms of identification of landforms and for many interpretations. We considered glaciated landforms "dissected" by post-glacial fluvial processes only if 1) evidence of post-glacial stream modification was visible, or 2) there was evidence of pre-glacial fluvial dissection that had not been erased by glacial processes. Such evidence includes entrenchment of stream channels, breaks in slope consistent with stream downcutting, presence of V-shaped valleys cut into those having a glacial U-shape, and drainage patterns that are inconsistent with apparent glacial dynamics. We used stream drainage pattern type, stream drainage texture, and degree of dissection as measures of fluvial modification. SLOPE ARRANGEMENT : Some landforms have an apparently random slope pattern, due to glacial processes or lack of controlling structure in bedrock. Other landforms have a repeating pattern of hills and valleys related to erosional processes, bedrock faulting, or bedrock characteristics such as flow ridges on lava or tuff plateaus. Some landforms are defined by single slopes, such as fluvial bluffs.
Process_Date: 19950101
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Process_Description: Coverage was reprojected from NAD 27 to NAD 83.
Process_Date: 19970407
Process_Step:
Process_Description:
In ARC/INFO 8.0.1, the command, REGIONQUERY was performed several times to produce five new regions in the coverage: GEN_LAND, LF, LF_GROUP, LF_SUBGROUP, and PM. Please see Section 5: "Entity and Attribute Information" for details on these regions.
Process_Date: 20000724

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Entity_and_Attribute_Information:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
Primary attributes are in the .PAT file, described in ATTRIBUTES. More information about landforms and their classification is available in the cited document. Landform, associated regolith composition, and presence of wet areas are mapped. The database contains the following attributes: AREA; PERIMETER; LANDFORM#; LANDFORM-ID; LF (landform); RC (regolith composition); LABEL (map unit symbol for this polygon, including landform, associated regolith composition, and presence of wet areas. It is a combination of the Attributes LF (three characters), RC (two characters), and WETAREAS); NEWNAME (simple geomorphological classification); VALUE (unused item); WETAREAS ("wet areas" refers to areas that show evidence of wetness for at least the latter part of the growing season and that may support wetland vegetation. We judged this a conservative criterion, because additional areas are wet earlier in the growing season, and most of the parks soils are wet in the spring and early summer before the active growing season. Evidence comes from field investigations and from the evaluation of aerial photography with near-infrared film, looking for the presence of depressional or stream-bottom topography and colors indicating actively transpiring vegetation in late September of 1982); QUAD (A two letter abbreviation of the USGS surficial or topographic quad name where the majority of the area of a polygon falls. About 0.5% of polygons have a blank for this attribute. This is used as a locational aid); LF_NAME (name of each landform); LF_GROUP (Landform Group); LF_SUBGROU (Landform Subgroup, NOTE: There are duplicate values for subgroups in different groups. Always use both the landform group AND subgroup value together when querying for landforms in a given subgroup.); SLOPE_RANG (Slope Range; Slope (i.e., slope gradient) is the inclination of the land surface from the horizontal. Percentage of slope is the vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance, then multiplied by 100. Thus, a slope of 20% is a drop of 20 ft (ca 6 m) in 100 ft (ca 30 m) of horizontal distance. Most landforms are differentiated on slope groups. For example, gently sloping plateaus have overall slopes of < 15% over most of the map unit. There may be drainageways or scarps that have higher slopes, but they make up < 10% of the entire surface area. A slope of 40% was used to differentiate stream breaks (breaklands). Slope classifications represent natural groupings based on which slopes commonly occur in the study area. The slope range indicates the endpoints of the most common slope values for the landform.); PROFILE_CU (Profile Curvature; Profile and plan curvature are described on a meso-scale, roughly 1000 to 1600 ft (305 to 487 m). Local (micro) scale curvature may be considerably different. For example, a glaciated valley may have a profile slope concavity overall, but on a local scale its curvature is highly variable because of depositional variation and post-glacial erosion. Profile slope curvature (vertical slope shape) is measured down the fall line (perpendicular to the contour.); PLAN_CURV (Profile Curvature; Plan slope curvature (horizontal slope shape) is measured along the slope contour, or perpendicular to the fall line.); RELIEF (Relief refers to the difference between the lowest and highest elevations in an individual landform delineation. Most landforms are differentiated on this criterion. High relief uplands or "mountains" have relief > 1000 ft (305 m), while other lands have less relief. Most landforms are differentiated on maximum or minimum relief, but a few may not have any relief, and some have minimum relief because of mapping limitations (e.g., 120 ft (37 m) for stream breaks or breaklands). Breakland-like forms with relief less than that value cannot be reliably identified and delineated at the scale of mapping.); SUR_MAT_1 (The textural and genetic nature of surficial material (unconsolidated material mantling unweathered bedrock). Its value was determined from surficial and bedrock geologic maps, topographic maps, existing publications, aerial photography, and field investigations. We defined a maximum of three different surficial materials for each LF (SUR_MAT_1, SUR_MAT_2, and SUR_MAT3). The types of regolith are: alluvial fan deposits (cobbly to sandy, locally with loess in surface layers); stream alluvium (relatively coarse-textured stream deposits, stratified deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles); fine textured alluvium (stratified, relatively fine deposits of silt, sand, and fine gravel deposited by slow-moving streams); colluvium-talus (angular gravel, cobbles, and boulders; fragmented soil material with few fine materials); colluvium-talus/soil (angular gravel, cobbles, and boulders, with soil material filling interstices in rocks); colluvium-soil (a mantle of loose material that is primarily soil, with some rock fragments); glacial till (also includes glacial rubble); flood deposits; glaciofluvial deposits; lake sediments (silty); beach sediments (sandy); loess and frost rubble; landslide debris; loess and sandy outwash, residuum (material weathered in place from bedrock), rounded bedrock exposures, or sharp bedrock exposures. Exposed bedrock affects vegetative productivity, erosion potential, construction, and hydrologic function. We estimated the proportion and shape of exposed bedrock with aerial photography and field investigations. To be included as a characteristic, bedrock had to be consistently > 5% by area and occur consistently between delineations. Where bedrock is not mentioned, it occurs in a small part of the map unit, or does not occur consistently between delineations. In non-glaciated areas, bedrock is probably exposed because of relatively rapid erosional events, relatively weak weathering processes, or the presence of hard, well consolidated bedrock. In glaciated areas, exposures indicate that glacial processes favored scour rather than deposition, or the presence of resistant bedrock. More than one kind of surficial material can be combined); SUR_MAT_2; SUR_MAT_3; SM_PROP_1 (Average percentage of SUR_MAT_1 as the surficial material in a landform. SM_PROP_1, SM_PROP_2, and SM_PROP3 add to 100 percent.); SM_PROP_2 (Average percentage of SUR_MAT_2 as the surficial material in a landform. SM_PROP_1, SM_PROP_2, and SM_PROP3 add to 100 percent.); SM_PROP_3 (Average percentage of SUR_MAT_3 as the surficial material in a landform. SM_PROP_1, SM_PROP_2, and SM_PROP3 add to 100 percent.); SM_LOC_1 (most common location of SUR_MAT_1 in a landform); SM_LOC_2 (most common location of SUR_MAT_2 in a landform); SM_LOC_3 (most common location of SUR_MAT_3 in a landform); DRAIN_TEXT (Stream drainage texture is the relative spacing of drainageways on a land surface. Stream drainage texture and degree of dissection are two measures of the degree to which streams have "dissected" or divided a preexisting landform. Stream drainage texture is a measure of average stream drainageway spacing. It does not imply there is an active stream in each drainage.); DEG_DISSEC (Degree of dissection is a measure of the depth of drainageway bottoms versus adjacent uplands or ridgetops. It is most apparent in landforms that have a previously flat or planar surface. The degree of stream dissection is related to the influence of running water. Where landforms are weakly dissected, little stream downcutting has probably occurred since the landform was created (usually in the Pleistocene). Strong dissection implies a drainage system which has had high stream energy or stream volume, a relatively long period of exposure to these processes, relatively nonresistant bedrock, or structural movements favoring stream downcutting.); DRAIN_PATT (Stream drainage patterns occurring in the study area are arboreal, dendritic, deranged, angulate, pinnate, parallel, rectangular, or braided. These patterns are determined by climate, underlying rock type and structure, soil texture, glacial history, and slope. At this scale of mapping, drainage system patterns are sometimes not visibly definitive. We assumed a dendritic pattern in cases where too few drainageways occur in a particular delineation for classification.); GEN_LAND (refers to generalized landforms; These were developed to provide about 15 different landform groups for the park.); COLORNAMES (Colors corresponding to GEN_LAND values. These were selected to provide a balanced look to the map made with them, and group colors that had similar landforms. It uses the COLORNAMES SHADESET in ARC/INFO.).
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SLOPE_RANG = Slope Range. The slope range indicates the endpoints of the most common slope values for the landform. Values range from 0 to 40 to 5 to 80.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
LF = landforms; The following list shows all possible landform symbols and landform names. It is colon (:) delimited and records are delineated with a vertical line (|). ABF: alluvial; alluvial basin| AFD: glaciofluvial; kames and bars; flood bar| AFU: alluvial; alluvial fan| AHD: glaciofluvial; terraces, plains, and flats; plain; fine, parallel drainage pattern| ALD: glaciofluvial; terraces, plains, and flats; plain; medium, dendritic drainage pattern| ALF: glaciofluvial; terraces, plains, and flats; plain; no drainage pattern| AOC: glaciofluvial; kame/outwash/terrace complex; dendritic drainage pattern| AOI: glaciofluvial; kame/outwash/terrace complex with alluvial fans; arboreal drainage pattern| AOK: glaciofluvial; kames and bars; kame| AOW: glaciofluvial; terraces, plains, and flats; plain; fine, dendritic drainage pattern| ASU: alluvial; stream flood plain| BLS: mass wasting; landslides; landslide scarp| BSR: fluvial uplands; stream break; rounded ridges; colluvial and talus slopes; medium drainage texture; strong dissection| BSS: fluvial uplands; stream break; sharp ridges; fine drainage texture; moderate dissection| BST: fluvial uplands; stream break; rounded ridges; bedrock and talus slopes; medium drainage texture; strong dissection| BSU: fluvial uplands; stream break; rounded ridges; colluvial slopes; coarse drainage texture; moderate dissection| BTU: fluvial uplands; stream break; rounded ridges; bedrock and talus slopes; medium drainage texture; weak dissection| CBA: glacial troughs and cirques; cirques; cirque basin| CHW: glacial troughs and cirques; cirques; headwall/sidewalls| CSU: glacial troughs and cirques; glacial complexes; cirque basin/wall complex| CTA: mass wasting; coarse textured colluvial slopes; talus or scree slope; less than 40 percent slope gradients; no soil cover| CTI: mass wasting; coarse textured colluvial slopes; talus or scree slope; variable slope gradients; shallow soil cover| HBR: hydrothermal; breaklands| HVL: hydrothermal; valley slopes| HYB: hydrothermal; basins| HYE: hydrothermal; explosion debris fields; rough; deranged drainage pattern| HYR: hydrothermal; rolling uplands| HYT: hydrothermal; terraces and flats| LBU: mass wasting; rock slides; block glide complex| LEU: mass wasting; landslides; earthflow| LRU: mass wasting; landslides; rock slide| PGB: glaciated uplands; plateaus; weak dissection; with arcuate or linear, rounded ridges; with exposed bedrock| PGC: glaciated uplands; plateaus; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock; with alluvial basins| PGD: glaciated uplands; plateaus; moderate dissection| PGI: glaciated uplands; plateaus; weak dissection; with arcuate or linear, rounded ridges| PGO: glaciated uplands; plateaus; strong dissection; with steep talus breaks| PGR: glaciated uplands; plateaus; non-dissected, moraine/rounded bedrock| PGS: glaciated uplands; plateaus; weak dissection; with slightly entrenched, broad outwash channels| PGU: glaciated uplands; plateaus; weak dissection| RLD: glaciated uplands; hills; linear hills; parallel drainage pattern; weak dissection; with exposed bedrock| RLL: glaciated uplands; hills; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection| RLO: glaciated uplands; hills; linear hills; parallel drainage pattern; moderate dissection| RMA: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; moderate dissection; with alluvial basins| RMB: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| RMD: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; moderate dissection| RMU: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; weak dissection; with exposed bedrock| RMW: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| RRA: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock; with alluvial basins| RRB: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; weak dissection; with exposed bedrock| RRM: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; rough; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| RRR: glaciated uplands; rolling uplands; non-dissected; bedrock| RTB: glaciated uplands; ridgetops; rounded; weak dissection; with exposed bedrock| RTR: glaciated uplands; ridgetops; rounded; weak dissection| RTU: glaciated uplands; ridgetops; frost affected; no drainage pattern| SLD: glaciated uplands, high relief; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection| SLM: glaciated uplands, high relief; medium, dendritic drainage pattern, strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| SLR: glaciated uplands, high relief; steep, medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| SLS: glaciated uplands, high relief; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| SLU: glaciated uplands, high relief; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection| TBD: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley bottom; weak dissection; moraine| TBG: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley bottom; weak dissection; moraine/glacio-fluvial deposits/alluvial fans| TBM: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley bottom; weak dissection; moraine| TBY: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley bottom; strong dissection| TCU: glacial troughs and cirques; glacial complexes: trough wall/valley bottom complex| THS: glacial troughs and cirques; glacial complexes; glacial head slopes| TWB: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley wall; weak dissection; bedrock| TWD: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley wall; strong dissection; bedrock/colluvium| TWM: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley wall; weak dissection; lateral moraine/colluvium| TWS: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley wall; weak dissection; bedrock/talus/lateral moraine| TWT: glacial troughs and cirques; trough valley wall; moderate dissection; bedrock/lateral moraine| UBS: fluvial uplands; hills and bluffs; convex bluff| UGB: fluvial uplands; plateaus; coarse, angulate drainage pattern; weak dissection; arcuate or linear rounded ridges| UGE: fluvial uplands; plateaus; medium, angulate drainage pattern; moderate dissection; arcuate or linear rounded ridges; with exposed bedrock| UGL: fluvial uplands; plateaus; deranged drainage pattern| UGO: fluvial uplands; plateaus; medium, parallel drainage pattern; strong dissection; with steep talus breaks| UGU: fluvial uplands; plateaus; medium, angulate drainage pattern; weak dissection| ULD: fluvial uplands; high relief; dissected slope/ridgetop complex; with exposed bedrock| ULF: fluvial uplands; hills and bluffs; pinnate drainage pattern, moderate dissection| ULO: fluvial uplands; hills and bluffs; medium textured, parallel drainage pattern; moderate dissection| ULP: fluvial uplands; hills and bluffs; fine textured, parallel drainage pattern; moderate dissection| ULS: fluvial uplands; high relief; dissected slope/ridgetop complex| ULT: fluvial uplands; hills and bluffs; concave structural bluff| UMM: fluvial uplands; rolling uplands; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; weak dissection; with exposed bedrock| UMU: fluvial uplands; rolling uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; moderate dissection; with exposed bedrock| URF: fluvial uplands; rolling uplands; fine, dendritic drainage pattern; moderate dissection| URL: fluvial uplands; rolling uplands; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; weak dissection; with exposed bedrock| URM: fluvial uplands; rolling uplands; rough topography; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| URR: fluvial uplands; rolling uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; moderate dissection| URS: fluvial uplands; rolling uplands; fine textured, parallel drainage pattern, strong dissection| VMB: glaciated uplands; concave uplands; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; weak dissection; with exposed bedrock| VMD: glaciated uplands; concave uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection| VMR: glaciated uplands; concave uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; strong dissection; with exposed bedrock| VMU: glaciated uplands; concave uplands; coarse, dendritic drainage pattern; weak dissection| VMW: glaciated uplands; concave uplands; medium, dendritic drainage pattern; moderate dissection| WAT: water bodies|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
RC = regolith composition; The following list describes all the possible values of Regolith Composition. This list includes the value, a description of each value, the general grouping as described above, and comments about each one. It is colon (:) delimited. 01: Bull Lake glacial till in rhyolite tuff and basalt: kinds of glacial till: | 04: silty frost rubble derived from andesitic rocks: frost rubble: may be younger than pre-Pinedale time| 05: medium to coarse textured rubble veneer (glacial rubble) derived from either rhyolite or granite: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): | 06: acid sulfate: hydrothermally altered rhyolite: hydrothermal and related materials: | 07: rubble veneer (glacial rubble) in limestone or travertine: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): | 08: stoney, silty solifluction deposits derived from andesitic rocks: solifluction deposits: | 09: silty or clayey pre-Pinedale till, mixture of rock types: kinds of glacial till: andesite, quartzite, tuff, sandstone, basalt, some crystalline erratics; no loess identified.| 10: rhyolite (excluding tuff): rock types in regolith: | 11: flood deposits: gravel, boulders, sand derived from a variety of rock types: alluvium: | 12: andesite (Wapiti Formation): rock types in regolith: | 13: andesite (Langford or Wiggins Formations): rock types in regolith: includes Trout Peak trachyandesite| 14: andesite (Tlr or Lamar River Formation): rock types in regolith: | 15: andesite (other formations): rock types in regolith: Wapiti Formation is never included here.| 16: basalt: rock types in regolith: | 17: hard crystalline rocks (includes schist, gneiss, granodiorite, and dacite): rock types in regolith: Precambian granites and metamorphics, Tertiary intrusive dikes and plugs; generally relatively hard, coarse crystalline rocks| 18: acid sulfate: hydrothermally altered andesite, some basalt: hydrothermal and related materials: | 19: mixture of rhyolite tuff and andesite: rock types in regolith: 20: coarse textured rubble veneer (glacial rubble) in limestone and sandstone: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): Quadrant sandstone, Shedhorn sandstone and others| 21: limestone and sandstone: rock types in regolith: Quadrant sandstone, Shedhorn sandstone and Madison limestone| 22: siltstone, shale, or mudstone: rock types in regolith: salty marine sediments {Landslide Creek formation and others}| 23: sandstone/shale mixture: rock types in regolith: | 24: limestone, shale, sandstone: rock types in regolith: Three Forks, Madison, Snowy Range, Park and other formations; some dolomite| 25: silty rubble veneer (glacial rubble) derived from shale, sandstone, and limestone: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): | 26: Northern Range rock types: rock types in regolith: granite, metamorphics, shale, basalt, rhyolite, quartzitic sandstone, andesite, with some limestone and rhyolite| 27: Northern Range rock types, with rhyolite tuff bedrock on ridgetops: rock types in regolith: | 28: rubble veneer (glacial rubble) in sandstone, shale: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): no limestone| 29: clayey solifluction material derived from shale and sandstone: solifluction deposits: | 30: undifferentiated hydrothermally altered material: hydrothermal and related materials: | 31: lakebed silt with cobbles and gravels mixed with some glacial till: lake sediments: | 32: rubble veneer (glacial rubble), pre-Pinedale in age, derived from rhyolite: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): | 33: clayey, pre-Pinedale glacial till, mixture of rock types, loess (wind blown silt) mixed in surface layer: kinds of glacial till: locally mantled by up to 2 feet (60 cm)of loess, mixture of rocks (andesite, tuff, crystalline, quartzite)| 34: carbonates: hydrothermal travertine: hydrothermal and related materials: | 35: complex of siltstone (Landslide Creek formation) and Northern Range rock types: rock types in regolith: | 36: pre-Pinedale glacial till mantled with 1-4 ft (30-121 cm). of loess (wind blown silt): kinds of glacial till: rhyolite tuff, basalt, crystalline rocks; identified north of the West Yellowstone basin, near Campanula Creek, western Yellowstone National park| 37: rhyolite tuff: rock types in regolith: | 38: hydrothermal explosion debris (variable proportions of rock fragments in fine textured matrix): hydrothermal and related materials: Ratio of fine material to rock fragments varies, depending on source of debris. Near Yellowstone Lake, materials are primarily silt. North of that area, materials have more rock fragments.| 39: coarse textured, stratified sands, gravels, and cobbles: alluvium: | 40: medium to fine textured, stratified silts and sands: alluvium: | 41: Northern Range rock types with crystalline bedrock exposures: rock types in regolith: soils are shallow with rounded Precambrian crystalline bedrock outcrops; includes some schist where clayey.| 42: silty to medium textured rubble veneer (glacial rubble) derived from andesite: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): | 43: rubble veneer (glacial rubble) derived from Northern Range rock types: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): | 44: complex of Northern Range Pinedale glacial till and Northern Range Pinedale rubble veneer (glacial rubble): kinds of glacial till: | 45: complex of Northern Range and andesite rock types: rock types in regolith: | 46: acid sulfate: hydrothermally altered and cemented stream gravels: hydrothermal and related materials: includes some till and glacial rubble| 47: complex of silty rubble veneer (glacial rubble) and Northern Range rock types: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): dominantly andesite rock type| 48: complex of basalt and rhyolite rubble veneer (glacial rubble): rubble veneer (glacial rubble): rhyolite tuff includes pre-Pinedale age and Pinedale (see 01 for till of pre-Pinedale, and 57 for till of Pinedale| 49: mixture of rhyolitic rubble veneer (glacial rubble) on uplands, loess (wind blown silt) in depressions, and sand in dry or intermittent glacial runoff stream channels: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): recognized on the Pitchstone Plateau flow only| 50: mixture of limestone, sandstone, shale, volcanic rocks (rhyolite, dacite, tuff): rock types in regolith: | 51: subangular and subrounded rock rubble; loess (wind blown silt) in depressions; sand in drainages: rock rubble: no visible evidence of glaciation| 52: acid sulfate: siliceous sinter, diatomaceous earth, or hydrothermally altered lake sediments: hydrothermal and related materials: also some cemented outwash gravels, some till| 53: poorly consolidated, erodible rhyolite tuff: rock types in regolith: (Cold Mountain or Shoshone Lake formation); may be hydrothermally altered glacial rubble from rhyolite| 54: rhyolite rock type, loess in depressions, sandy alluvium in dry or intermittent glacial runoff stream channels: rock types in regolith: recognized on the Pitchstone Plateau flow only; this does not include glacial rubble| 55: acid sulfate: hydrothermally altered, coarse textured rubble veneer (glacial rubble): hydrothermal and related materials: | 56: rhyolite with sandy and gravelly alluvium in dry or intermittent glacial runoff stream channels: rock types in regolith: recognized on the Summit Lake rhyolite flow only; this does not include glacial rubble| 57: rhyolite tuff and basalt mixture of rock types: rock types in regolith: includes Swan Lake Flat basalt near Sheepeater Cliffs, Mammoth Quad; and Madison River basalt; this does not include glacial rubble| 58: rhyolite and obsidian sand and gravel with a small amount of loess (wind blown silt) in surface layer: alluvium: West Yellowstone Basin| 59: andesite rock rubble (angular rock fragments) in a fine grained matrix: residuum and colluvium: weathered or frost riven from local bedrock. The only visible evidence of glaciation is presence of occasional rounded stones and boulders| 60: rhyolite rubble (angular rock fragments) in a moderately coarse grained matrix: residuum and colluvium: weathered or frost riven from local bedrock. The only visible evidence of glaciation is presence of occasional rounded stones and boulders| 61: andesite, undifferentiated: rock types in regolith: includes any formation| 62: basalt and rhyolite till and bedrock mantled with 2 to 4 feet (60 to 120 cm) of loess (wind blown silt): rock types in regolith: | 63: andesite and limestone, with some sandstone and shale: rock types in regolith: this is common near Slough Creek, northwestern Yellowstone National Park; dominantly andesite; some crystalline rocks| 64: clayey frost rubble derived from sandstone and shale: frost rubble: may be younger than pre-Pinedale time| 65: coarse textured rubble veneer (glacial rubble) in granite or metamorphic rocks: rubble veneer (glacial rubble): | 67: sandy beach sediments: lake sediments: few cobbles| 68: silty lake sediments: lake sediments: some sand lenses| 71: neutral-high chloride: siliceous sinter, diatomaceous earth, or altered lake sediments (silty): hydrothermal and related materials: | 72: neutral-high chloride: hydrothermally altered rhyolite: hydrothermal and related materials: | 74: mixture of neutral-high chloride and acid sulfate: hydrothermally altered and cemented stream gravels: hydrothermal and related materials: | 75: mixture of Northern Range rock types and andesite: rock types in regolith: | 77: mixture of neutral-high chloride and acid sulfate: hydrothermally altered rhyolite: hydrothermal and related materials: | 78: mixture of neutral-high chloride and acid sulfate: siliceous sinter, diatomaceous earth, or altered lake sediments (silty): hydrothermal and related materials: | ER: water bodies|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
LABEL = he map unit symbol for this polygon, including landform, associated regolith composition, and presence of wet areas. It is a combination of the Attributes LF (three characters), RC (two characters), and WETAREAS, described above (e.g. ABF40w). This project was completed with an "open" legend (See PROCESS above). Any combination of the three attributes could theoretically be used in the legend, depending on conditions existing in the field. However, only about 800 different combinations actually occurred. The list given below is correct as of September 1, 1996. It is only approximately correct for the included spatial data set because of last-minute revisions. An up-to-date version can be extracted from the spatial data set itself, using the item "LABEL". Each entry is colon (:) delimited. ABF39w: ABF40w: ABF46w: ABF52w: ABF71w: ABF74w: AFD11: AFU34: AFU39: AFU40: AFU46: AFU52: AFU71: AHD11: ALD31w: ALD40w: ALD46w: ALD52w: ALD67w: ALF31: ALF31w: ALF34: ALF38: ALF39: ALF40w: ALF46: ALF46w: ALF52: ALF52w: ALF58: ALF67w: ALF68: ALF71w: AOC39: AOC39w: AOC40: AOC40w: AOC46: AOC46w: AOC52w: AOC74: AOC74w: AOI39w: AOI40w: AOI46w: AOK39: AOK46: AOK74: AOW11: AOW31: AOW39: AOW39w: AOW46: AOW46w: AOW52: AOW52w: AOW58w AOW68: AOW68w: AOW74w: ASU13w: ASU39: ASU39w: ASU40w: ASU46w: ASU52w: ASU71w: ASU74w: BLS10: BLS12: BLS13: BLS14: BLS15: BLS16: BLS17: BLS21: BLS23: BLS24: BLS34: BLS35: BLS37: BLS63: BSR10: BSR12: BSR14: BSR17: BSR24: BSR35: BSR37: BSS06: BSS10: BSS12: BSS14: BSS15: BSS22: BSS35: BSS37: BSS39: BSS63: BST10: BST12: BST13: BST14: BST17: BST37: BSU06: BSU10: BSU12: BSU13: BSU14: BSU15: BSU16: BSU17: BSU19: BSU21: BSU23: BSU24: BSU37: BSU42: BSU52: BTU06: BTU10: BTU12: BTU13: BTU14: BTU15: BTU16: BTU17: BTU18: BTU21: BTU23: BTU24: BTU37: BTU50: BTU53: CBA12w: CBA13w: CBA14w: CBA15w: CBA17w: CBA18w: CBA21w: CBA23w: CBA24w: CBA37w: CBA50w: CBA63w: CHW12: CHW13: CHW14: CHW15: CHW17: CHW21: CHW23: CHW24: CHW29: CHW37: CHW50: CSU12w: CSU17w: CSU21w: CSU24w: CTA10: CTA13: CTA14: CTA15: CTA16: CTA17: CTA21: CTA23: CTA24: CTA37: CTA50: CTA63: CTI10: CTI12: CTI13: CTI17: CTI24: CTI37: HBR06: HBR18: HBR72: HVL06w: HVL18w: HVL34w: HVL38w: HVL46w: HVL52w: HVL71w: HVL72w: HYB06w: HYB18w: HYB46w: HYB52w: HYB71w: HYB72w: HYB74w: HYB77w: HYE38: HYE38w: HYE46w: HYR06w: HYR18w: HYR34w: HYR46w: HYR52w: HYR71w: HYR72w: HYR74w: HYT06w: HYT34w: HYT46w: HYT52w: HYT71w: HYT72w: HYT74w: HYT78w: LBU10w: LBU15w: LBU24w: LBU35w: LBU37w: LBU61w: LBU63w: LEU06: LEU06w: LEU08w: LEU10w: LEU17w: LEU21w: LEU22: LEU22w: LEU23: LEU23w: LEU24w: LEU26w: LEU29w: LEU31w: LEU34w: LEU35w: LEU37: LEU37w: LEU39w: LEU40w: LEU50w: LEU61: LEU61w: LEU63w: LRU34: PGB05: PGB10: PGB13: PGB16: PGB42: PGB49: PGB54: PGB55: PGB62: PGC10w: PGC37w: PGD01: PGD05: PGD05w: PGD06: PGD09: PGD09w: PGD10: PGD10w: PGD13w: PGD14: PGD16: PGD16w: PGD19: PGD23w: PGD26w: PGD32: PGD37: PGD37w: PGD38: PGD40: PGD48: PGD53: PGD56: PGD57: PGD57w: PGI05: PGI10: PGO05: PGO10: PGO37: PGO48: PGO53: PGR05: PGR10: PGR19: PGR37: PGR42: PGR48: PGR53: PGS56: PGU01: PGU05: PGU05w: PGU06: PGU06w: PGU09: PGU10: PGU10w: PGU13: PGU13w: PGU16: PGU18: PGU19: PGU19w: PGU24w: PGU26: PGU26w: PGU32: PGU37: PGU37w: PGU41: PGU48: PGU50: PGU50w: PGU56: PGU62: PGU62w: PGU75: RLD05: RLD05w: RLD06w: RLD10: RLD10w: RLD13: RLD13w: RLD14: RLD15w: RLD17w: RLD24: RLD26w: RLD27w: RLD37w: RLD42: RLD42w: RLD63w: RLD75w: RLL14: RLL41: RLL42: RLL44: RLL50: RLL63: RLO05: RLO10: RLO10w: RLO13: RLO13w: RLO18: RLO19: RLO23: RLO23w: RLO24: RLO24w: RLO37: RLO37w: RLO41w: RLO42: RLO42w: RLO75w: RMA10w: RMA13w: RMB05: RMB06: RMB09: RMB10: RMB13: RMB18: RMB24: RMB26: RMB32: RMB37: RMB41: RMB42: RMB46: RMB65: RMB72: RMD05: RMD06: RMD06w: RMD07: RMD10: RMD10w: RMD13: RMD13w: RMD14: RMD15: RMD17w: RMD19w: RMD23: RMD23w: RMD24w: RMD26: RMD27: RMD28: RMD32: RMD37: RMD37w: RMD41: RMD42: RMD57: RMD62: RMD62w: RMD63: RMU01: RMU05: RMU08: RMU09: RMU10: RMU12: RMU13: RMU14: RMU15: RMU19: RMU23: RMU24: RMU26: RMU28: RMU31: RMU32: RMU36: RMU37: RMU39: RMU41: RMU42: RMU46: RMU48: RMU62: RMU75: RMW10w: RMW12w: RMW13w: RMW17w: RMW19w: RMW23w: RMW24w: RMW25w: RMW29w: RMW31w: RMW46w: RMW63w: RMW75w: RRA10w: RRA13w: RRA37w: RRB04: RRB05: RRB05w: RRB06: RRB10: RRB10w: RRB12: RRB13: RRB13w: RRB15: RRB15w: RRB17: RRB19: RRB20: RRB23w: RRB24: RRB25: RRB26: RRB28: RRB31: RRB37w: RRB41: RRB41w: RRB42: RRB42w: RRB63w: RRB65: RRB65w: RRM05: RRM05w: RRM06: RRM10: RRM10w: RRM12w: RRM13: RRM13w: RRM15: RRM17: RRM23: RRM23w: RRM24: RRM24w: RRM25w: RRM32: RRM37: RRM41: RRM41w: RRM42: RRM42w: RRM50: RRM57: RRM57w: RRM65: RRM75w: RRM77w: RRR05: RRR10: RRR13: RRR15: RRR16: RRR17: RRR22: RRR23: RRR24: RRR28: RRR37: RRR41: RRR42: RRR63: RRR65: RTB42: RTR14: RTR23: RTR42: RTU04: RTU05: RTU08: RTU23: RTU25: RTU29: RTU50: RTU64: RTU65: SLD13: SLD14: SLD23: SLD24: SLD28: SLD37: SLD42: SLD50: SLM13: SLM14: SLM25: SLM42: SLR12: SLR13: SLR17: SLR42: SLR63: SLS13: SLS14: SLS37: SLS42: SLS47: SLS65: SLU13: SLU42: TBD01: TBD05: TBD06: TBD08: TBD09: TBD10: TBD12: TBD13: TBD14: TBD15: TBD16: TBD17: TBD19: TBD20: TBD21: TBD23: TBD24: TBD25: TBD28: TBD36: TBD37: TBD41: TBD42: TBD47: TBD48: TBD50: TBD63: TBD65: TBD75: TBG10w: TBG14w: TBG24w: TBG37w: TBG39w: TBG50w: TBG63w: TBM05w: TBM10w: TBM12w: TBM13w: TBM14w: TBM15w: TBM17w: TBM23w: TBM24w: TBM26w: TBM37w: TBM41w: TBM42w: TBM63w: TBM65w: TBY06: TBY10: TBY12: TBY13: TBY15: TBY23: TBY24: TBY25: TBY37: TBY42: TCU01: TCU05: TCU12: TCU13: TCU23: TCU37: TCU42: THS10: THS12: THS13: THS14: THS15: THS17: THS18: THS21: THS23: THS24: THS25: THS29: THS32: THS37: THS50: THS63: TWB12: TWB13: TWB15: TWB17: TWB21: TWB23: TWB24: TWB27: TWB37: TWB41: TWB63: TWD10: TWD12: TWD13: TWD14: TWD15: TWD23: TWD24: TWD37: TWD72: TWM10: TWM12: TWM13: TWM14: TWM15: TWM19: TWM21: TWM22: TWM23: TWM24: TWM37: TWM39: TWM50: TWM63: TWS10: TWS12: TWS13: TWS14: TWS15: TWS17: TWS19: TWS21: TWS23: TWS24: TWS35: TWS37: TWS50: TWS63: TWS75: TWT10: TWT12: TWT13: TWT14: TWT17: TWT21: TWT23: TWT24: TWT37: TWT50: TWT63: UBS06: UBS10: UBS37: UGB10: UGB51: UGE10: UGE51: UGL10w: UGO37: UGO60: UGU10: UGU51: UGU59: UGU60: ULD15: ULD17: ULD59: ULD60: ULF31: ULF40: ULO23: ULO40: ULO59: ULO60: ULP38w: ULP40w: ULS39: ULS59: ULT10: UMM23: UMM38: UMM59: UMM60: UMU17: UMU24: UMU59: UMU60: URF31: URF31w: URF40: URF40w: URL10: URL15: URL17: URL59: URL60: URM10: URM37: URM59: URM60: URR10: URR13w: URR15: URR17w: URR23: URR34: URR38: URR39: URR39w: URR46: URR46w: URR52w: URR68: URR68w: URR74: URS10: URS12: URS39: URS42: URS46: URS53: VMB05: VMB06: VMB09w: VMB10: VMB10w: VMB12: VMB12w: VMB13: VMB13w: VMB14w: VMB15w: VMB16w: VMB17: VMB17w: VMB18: VMB19: VMB19w: VMB23: VMB23w: VMB24: VMB24w: VMB25: VMB26: VMB26w: VMB27: VMB28w: VMB32w: VMB35: VMB37: VMB41: VMB41w: VMB42: VMB42w: VMB75: VMB75w: VMD01: VMD09: VMD10: VMD12: VMD13: VMD15: VMD16: VMD19: VMD23: VMD24: VMD26: VMD36: VMD37: VMD42: VMD63: VMD72: VMD75: VMR05: VMR06: VMR09: VMR12: VMR13: VMR23: VMR42: VMR65: VMU01: VMU05: VMU09: VMU09w: VMU10: VMU10w: VMU12w: VMU13: VMU13w: VMU14: VMU14w: VMU15: VMU15w: VMU17: VMU17w: VMU18: VMU19: VMU19w: VMU23: VMU23w: VMU24: VMU24w: VMU25: VMU26: VMU26w: VMU29: VMU36: VMU37: VMU37w: VMU41: VMU42: VMU42w: VMU50: VMU57: VMU75: VMU75w: VMW09w: VMW10w: VMW12w: VMW13w: VMW14w: VMW15w: VMW18w: VMW19w: VMW23w: VMW24w: VMW25w: VMW26w: VMW37w: VMW41w: VMW42w: VMW75w: WATER
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
WETAREAS = The term "wet areas" refers to areas that show evidence of wetness for at least the latter part of the growing season and that may support wetland vegetation. We judged this a conservative criterion, because additional areas are wet earlier in the growing season, and most of the parks soils are wet in the spring and early summer before the active growing season. Evidence comes from field investigations and from the evaluation of aerial photography with near-infrared film, looking for the presence of depressional or stream-bottom topography and colors indicating actively transpiring vegetation in late September of 1982. The symbol "w" is appended on map unit symbols where seasonal wet areas make up > 5% of the map units area, with exception of "WATER".
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
QUAD = A two letter abbreviation of the USGS surficial or topographic quad name where the majority of the area of a polygon falls. About 0.5% of polygons have a blank for this attribute. This is used as a locational aid. The following list includes all quad values and their names. It is colon (:) delimited and records are delineated with a vertical line (|). AB:Abiathar| BF:Buffalo Lake| CA:Canyon Junction| CB:Crowne Butte| CO:Cutoff Mountain| EP:Eagle Peak| FI:Frank Island| GD:Gardiner| GL:Grassy Lake| HU:Huckleberry Mountain| MD:Madison Junction| MH:Mount Holmes| MK:Mount Hancock| MM:Mammoth| MR:Tom Miner| MW:Mount Wallace| NO:Norris| OF:Old Faithful| PC:Pelican Cone| PP:Pilot Peak| SU:Sunlight Peak| TO:Two Ocean Pass| TP:Teepee| TW:Tower Junction| WR:Warm River Butte| WT:West Thumb| WY:West Yellowstone|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
LF_NAME = name of each landform See the Attribute LF for values.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
LF_GROUP = Landform Group. The following list describes all the possible values of Landform Group. This list includes the value and a description of each value. The included Landform Subgroups are described within each Landform Group. Each item (name and description is colon (:) delimited and records are delineated with a vertical line (|). GLACIAL TROUGHS AND CIRQUES GROUP - This group includes areas that have been under glacial ice and reflect a relatively strong influence of glacial erosional and depositional processes, due to relatively nonresistant bedrock type or structure, relatively rapid movement or large volume of glacial ice, or the effects of preexisting topography. Glacial erosion has produced concave slopes and basins, with characteristic U-shaped trough valleys. Plan slopes are generally straight. Bedrock exposures are scoured or rounded. Local glacial deposition has occurred in trough bottoms. Subgroups are differentiated on shape, slope, and degree of glacial expression. Glacial Cirques: includes semicircular, concave, bowl-like areas that have steep faces, primarily resulting from glacial ice and snow abrasion. Profile and plan curvatures are concave. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on slope.| Trough Valley Bottoms: includes the floors and lower side slopes of glacially eroded valleys. The valley profile is commonly U-shaped. Profile slope is concave and plan slope is straight. Slope gradients are < 30%. Stream pattern is arboreal with weak dissection. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on stream dissection and nature of surficial materials.| Trough Valley Walls: includes the steep side slopes of glacially eroded valleys. The valley profile is commonly U-shaped. Profile slope is concave and plan slope is straight. Slope gradients are > 30%. Stream pattern is parallel, with weak to moderate dissection. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on nature of surficial materials and stream dissection. | Glacial Complexes: includes complexes of cirques headwalls and basins, trough valley walls and bottoms, or glacial headslopes. Cirque complexes and trough valleys are used to combine Landforms in this subgroup that are too small to delineate separately at this scale of mapping. Glacial headslopes are valley headslopes or valley walls that have evidence of glacial scouring and deposition in a direction perpendicular to the valley headslope or wall, but no well-defined cirque basins. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on the kind of inclusions.| GLACIATED UPLANDS GROUP - This group includes areas that have been under glacial ice and are at least partially mantled with glacial till. However, the mechanisms of glacial erosion and deposition were probably relatively less effective than those in the Glacial Troughs and Cirques group. This may be due to presence of resistant bedrock type or structure, relatively slow movement or low volume of glacial ice, or the effects of preexisting topography. Therefore, the landforms lack well-defined trough or cirque development. They have a concave, convex, or planar appearance, depending on preexisting landforms, degree of glacial influence, and bedrock structure. Slopes are locally complex. Bedrock exposures are rounded with glacial striations (scour marks) present in some places. Subgroups are differentiated on the basis of slope and slope shape, slope arrangement, underlying bedrock shape, and maximum relief.| Glaciated Plateaus: includes glaciated lands having a planar appearance due to the shape of the underlying bedrock structure, usually lava or ash flow tuff flows. Slopes are < 15%. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by presence of outwash channels, loess-covered or lobate ridges, talus slopes, bedrock exposure, or degree of stream dissection. | Concave Uplands: includes glaciated lands that have a large-scale bowl shape with slightly concave profile slopes, complex plan slopes, and dendritic drainage patterns. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on texture and degree of dissection, and bedrock exposure.| High Relief Uplands: includes glaciated lands that have convex slopes and high relief (> 1000 feet or 305 m). Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by texture of stream dissection and bedrock exposure. | Hills: includes glaciated lands that have low to moderate relief (< 1000 feet or 305 m) with complex slopes and an overall convex appearance in profile and in plan. They have a strongly repeating pattern of hill slopes and ridges. They have low to moderate relief, and slope gradients < 40%. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by type of drainage pattern and degree of stream dissection.| Ridgetops: includes glaciated lands that have convex slopes with gradients < 25%. They have weak or no dissection. They are mapped when large enough to be accurately delineated at the scale used in this project. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on bedrock exposure and presence of active cryoturbation.| Rolling Uplands: includes glaciated lands that have a complex of concave and convex slopes, with no strongly repeating pattern of hill slopes and ridges and low to moderate relief. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by degree and degree of stream dissection, topographical roughness, and bedrock exposure.| GLACIOFLUVIAL LANDFORMS GROUP - This group includes areas that reflect the effects of meltwater flows, floods, and lakes related to glaciation. Local topography may be a mixture of terraces, flats, kames, hills, and channels, plains, or flood bars. Subgroups are differentiated on the basis of slope profile shape. Glaciofluvial Kame/Outwash Complexes: includes deposits resulting from relatively high-energy glacial meltwater flows. They have concave profile and concave or straight plan slope curvatures. Slope gradients are < 25%. Local topography is a mixture of kames, hills, channels, and terraces. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on overall plan shape.| Glaciofluvial Kames and Bars: includes deposits formed from glacial meltwater flows and related floods. Slope gradients are < 25%. Local topography is convex with steep scarps and small terraces. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on mode of deposition and slope curvature. | Glaciofluvial Terraces, Plains, and Flats: includes deposits resulting from relatively low-energy glacial meltwater flows and impoundments. Slope profile curvature is straight. Slope gradients are < 10%. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on degree and texture of dissection.| ALLUVIAL LANDFORMS GROUP - This group is comprised of deposits of recent (Holocene) alluviation, including alluvial fans, alluvial basins, and flood plains. Stream erosional landforms are not included if at a scale larger than small terrace formation and channel downcutting. Landforms are differentiated on landform morphology. There are no subgroups in this group. No Subgroups:| FLUVIAL UPLANDS GROUP - Lands in this group mirror the effects of non-glacial fluviation, including unconcentrated runoff, slow weathering in place, slow downslope movement of the regolith or weathered mantle with removal by streams, and domination by bedrock structural characteristics, (e.g., rhyolite-flow boundaries or relatively rapid stream downcutting). Excluded are relatively rapid downslope movement and talus movement, recent streamflow depositional processes, or landforms strongly influenced by hydrothermal activity. These lands were probably not covered with glacial ice during the most recent (Pinedale) glaciation, shown by lack of glacial features or location above or outside the maximum Pinedale ice limits. Most were probably covered by earlier (Bull Lake) glaciers. If they were glaciated during some period, either no visible evidence remains (probably because of removal by subsequent processes), or little glacial erosion/deposition occurred, possibly due to slow ice movement. The formation of an ice dam by a dominant glacier downvalley could produce the latter conditions. Evidence for fluviation includes V-shaped valley profiles, straight profile slope curvature, lack of recognizable till cover, and lack of glacial striations on bedrock exposures. Subgroups are differentiated on the basis of relief, slope gradient, slope curvature, and slope arrangement. Plateaus: includes glaciated lands that have a planar appearance due to the shape of the underlying bedrock structure, usually lava or ash flow tuff flows. Slopes are < 15%. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by kind of drainage pattern, degree of stream dissection, or presence of flow ridges.| High Relief Uplands: includes lands that have straight to slightly convex slopes and high relief (> 1000 feet or 305 m). Slope gradients are < 40%. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by bedrock exposure.| Hills and Bluffs: includes lands that have low to moderate relief (< 1000 feet or 305 m) with an overall convex or straight appearance in profile and in plan. Hills have a strongly repeating pattern of hill slopes and ridges. They have low to moderate relief, and slope gradients are < 40%. Bluffs are single slopes, generally on the edges of lava or tuff flows. Hill Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by kind of drainage pattern. Bluff Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on slope profile curvature.| Rolling Uplands: includes lands that have a complex of concave, straight, and convex slopes with no strongly repeating pattern of hill slopes and ridges and low to moderate relief. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated by degree and degree of stream dissection, topographical roughness, and bedrock exposure.| Stream Breaks: includes lands that have slope gradients > 40%. Profile curvature is straight on lower to mid slopes and convex on head slopes. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on composition of surficial materials, bedrock exposure, and degree and texture of stream dissection.| HYDROTHERMAL GROUP - Lands in this group are differentiated on the basis of formation mode. A hydrothermal landforms characteristics are apparently due to hydrothermal activity, either erosional, due to acid-sulfate processes; or constructional (i.e., primarily from neutral-chloride or carbonate processes). Hydrothermal explosions have created some features. All these lands appear quite different from surrounding areas, although hydrothermal processes may not necessarily be active at the present time. We developed this group because of the importance of these small but unique areas. There are no subgroups in this group. Landforms are differentiated on slope gradient, slope curvature, and mode of deposition. Not included are landforms which have some hydrothermal influence but whose characteristics are relatively unchanged by those processes. The latter are differentiated by regolith composition. No Subgroups:| MASS WASTING GROUP - Lands in this group reflect the effects of gravity, as either relatively rapid mass movement or slow downhill movement of rock fragments. Slow downhill movement of the soil mantle is not included. These lands were formed either during or shortly after the end of the Pleistocene, and some movement continues today. Subgroups are differentiated on the basis of relative speed of movement and morphology. Coarse Textured Colluvium: includes lands formed by relatively slow downslope movement of rock fragments. Only coarse-textured material is included. These lands are differentiated from stream breaks by the nature of the associated surficial materials and profile slope shape. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on kind of talus slope and slope gradient. Active, unvegetated talus slopes or rock glaciers have slope gradients < 40%. Inactive talus slopes have gradients between 30 and 80% and slabby rock fragments.| Landslides: includes the erosional and depositional parts of landslides, resulting from relatively rapid downslope movement of rock fragments or soil material. Landforms in this subgroup are differentiated on process (erosional or depositional), and mix of included materials.| WATER BODIES GROUP - Water Bodies: includes water bodies not including streams. No Subgroups.|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
LF_SUBGROU = Landform Subgroup. See LF_GROUP for values.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
PROFILE_CU = Profile slope curvature (vertical slope shape) is measured down the fall line (perpendicular to the contour.) Names and descriptions are delimited with a colon (:) and records are delineated with a vertical line (|). Convex: curvature implies slope angle increases. | Concave: curvature implies slope angle decreases.| Straight: curvature implies slope angle stays relatively constant.| Complex: curvature implies a repeating sequence of convex and concave slopes.| Variable: curvature implies any combination of slope curvature is possible.|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
PLAN_CURV = Plan slope curvature (horizontal slope shape) is measured along the slope contour, or perpendicular to the fall line. Names and descriptions are delimited with a colon (:) and records are delineated with a vertical line (|). Convex: curvature implies the land surface resembles the curved outside of a sphere.| Concave: curvature implies the surface resembles the inside surface of a sphere.| Straight: curvature implies a relatively planar surface.| Complex: curvature implies a repeating sequence of convex and concave slopes.| Variable: curvature implies that any combination of slope curvature may occur.|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: RELIEF values range from 0 to 1000 ft.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SUR_MAT_1 = The textural and genetic nature of surficial material (unconsolidated material mantling unweathered bedrock). We defined a maximum of three different surficial materials for each LF (SUR_MAT_1, SUR_MAT_2, and SUR_MAT3). More than one kind of surficial material can be combined to define the values listed below. Name records are delineated with a vertical line (|). alluvial fan deposits| colluvium (soil)| colluvium (talus)| colluvium (talus/soil)| flood deposits| glacial till| glaciofluvial deposits| lake sediments| lake sediments mixed with glacial till| lake sediments or other glaciofluvial deposits| landslide debris| loess and frost rubble| residuum or glaciofluvial deposits| residuum with some colluvium| residuum, glaciofluvial deposits, or alluvium| rounded bedrock exposures| sharp bedrock exposures| stream alluvium| stream alluvium and outwash|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: SUR_MAT_2 see SUR_MAT_1 for values.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: SUR_MAT_3 see SUR_MAT_1 for values
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SM_PROP_1 = Average percentage of SUR_MAT_1 as the surficial material in a landform. SM_PROP_1, SM_PROP_2, and SM_PROP3 add to 100 percent. Values range from 0 to 100 percent.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: SM_PROP_2 ; see SM_PROP_1 for values
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview: SM_PROP_3 ; see SM_PROP_1 for values.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SM_LOC_1 = most common location of SUR_MAT_1 in a landform. The following list contains all possible values of SM_LOC_1. Name records are delineated with a vertical line (|). at bases of steep slopes| in alluvial basins| in steep chutes| in swales| near rock outcrops| near stream courses| near trough bottom| on convex knobs and ridges| on floodplains and terraces| on gentle to moderate slopes| on higher slopes| on lower slopes| on ridgetops| on sideslopes| on steep slopes| scattered in the map unit| throughout the map unit|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SM_LOC_2 = most common location of SUR_MAT_2 in a landform. See SM_LOC_1 for a list of values.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
SM_LOC_3 = most common location of SUR_MAT_3 in a landform. See SM_LOC_1 for a list of values.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
DRAIN_TEXT = Stream drainage texture is the relative spacing of drainageways on a land surface. Names and descriptions are delimited with a colon (:) and records are delineated with a vertical line (|). Fine: texture means that spacing is < 900 ft (ca. 240 m), and typically indicates high levels of surface runoff, impervious bedrock which may be relatively nonresistant, and soils of low permeability.| Medium: texture is 900 ft to 2100 ft (ca. 240 m to 560 m), and implies the presence of soils and rock of intermediate composition.| Coarse: texture is where drainageways are > 2100 ft (ca. 560 m) apart. Coarse texture implies there is relatively little runoff, relatively resistant bedrock which may be permeable, and/or coarse-textured soils.| None: no dissection is apparent.| Variable: Texture of dissection is variable in this landform.|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
DEG_DISSEC = Degree of dissection is a measure of the depth of drainageway bottoms versus adjacent uplands or ridgetops. Names and descriptions are delimited with a colon (:) and records are delineated with a vertical line (|). Not dissected or None: indicates there is no discernible dissection on aerial photos at a scale of 1:22,000. Weak: dissection refers to stream drainageways that are < 20 ft (ca. 6 m) below adjacent uplands or surface ridges perpendicular to the drainageway.| Moderate: dissection is 30 to 90 ft (ca. 10 to 30 m). | Strong: dissection is > 90 ft (ca. 30 m).| Variable: strength of dissection is variable in this landform.|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
DRAIN_PATT = Stream drainage patterns occurring in the study area are arboreal, dendritic, deranged, angulate, pinnate, parallel, rectangular, or braided. Name records are delineated with a vertical line (|). angulate| arboreal| braided| dendritic| deranged| none| parallel| pinnate| rectangular| variable|
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
GEN_LAND = refers to generalized landforms. No key available
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
COLORNAMES Colors corresponding to GEN_LAND values. These were selected to provide a balanced look to the map made with them, and group colors that had similar landforms. It uses the COLORNAMES SHADESET in ARC/INFO. No key available.
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation:
Shovic, H., 1996. Landforms and Associated Surficial Materials of Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone Center for Resources, Yellowstone National Park, WY. YCR-NRSR-96-3
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Overview:
The regions in this coverage each contain unique defining attributes as follows (and as defined in the previous information): REGION.GEN_LAND with the GEN_LAND attribute; REGION.LF with the LF attribute; REGION.LF_GROUP with the LF_GROUP attribute; REGION.LF_SUBGROUP with the LF_SUBGROUP attribute; and REGION.PM with the RC attribute.
Detailed_Description:
Attribute:
Attribute:
Attribute:
Overview_Description:
Entity_and_Attribute_Detail_Citation: none

Distribution_Information:
Distributor:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Person_Primary:
Contact_Person: Bill Slocumb
Contact_Organization: North Carolina State University
Contact_Position: Research Associate/GIS Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: mailing and physical address
Address: 5112 Jordan Hall
City: Raleigh
State_or_Province: North Carolina
Postal_Code: 27695
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: 919-515-3432
Hours_of_Service: 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. EST, Monday Through Friday
Contact_Instructions:
Data available on national NPS spatial data clearinghouse, www.nps.gov/gis/available_data.html
Resource_Description: yell_landform.e00.zip
Distribution_Liability:
The National Park Service shall not be held liable for improper or incorrect use of the data described and/or contained herein. These data and related graphics ("GIF" format files) are not legal documents and are not intended to be used as such. The information contained in these data is dynamic and may change over time. The data are not better than the original sources from which they were derived. It is the responsibility of the data user to use the data appropriately and consistent within the limitations of geospatial data in general and these data in particular. The related graphics are intended to aid the data user in acquiring relevant data; it is not appropriate to use the related graphics as data. The National Park Service gives no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of these data. It is strongly recommended that these data are directly acquired from an NPS server and not indirectly through other sources which may have changed the data in some way. Although these data have been processed successfully on a computer system at the National Park Service, no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the utility of the data on another system or for general or scientific purposes, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty. This disclaimer applies both to individual use of the data and aggregate use with other data.
Standard_Order_Process:
Digital_Form:
Digital_Transfer_Information:
Format_Name: ARCE
Format_Version_Number: Version 8.0.1
Format_Specification: .e00
Transfer_Size: 6.5
Digital_Transfer_Option:
Online_Option:
Computer_Contact_Information:
Network_Address:
Network_Resource_Name:
ftp://ftp.ncsu.edu/pub/unity/lockers/ftp/npsftp/pu b/data/YELL/<file name>
Fees: None
Ordering_Instructions:
Dataset available at any time via the world wide web.

Metadata_Reference_Information:
Metadata_Date: 19971202
Metadata_Review_Date: 20000925
Metadata_Contact:
Contact_Information:
Contact_Organization_Primary:
Contact_Organization:
Spatial Analysis Center - Yellowstone National
Park
Contact_Position: GIS Specialist
Contact_Address:
Address_Type: Mailing Address
Address: Yellowstone Center for Resources
Address: Spatial Analysis Center
Address: P.O. Box 168
City: Yellowstone National Park
State_or_Province: Wyoming
Postal_Code: 82190
Country: USA
Contact_Voice_Telephone: (307) 344-2246
Contact_Facsimile_Telephone: (307) 344-2211
Contact_Electronic_Mail_Address: yell_gis@nps.gov
Hours_of_Service:
8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (Mountain Time) Monday Through Friday
Contact_Instructions:
Please check web site first: http://www.nps.gov/yell/technical/gis
Metadata_Standard_Name:
FGDC Content Standards For Digital Geospatial Metadata
Metadata_Standard_Version: June 8, 1994
Metadata_Access_Constraints: None
Metadata_Use_Constraints: None
Metadata_Security_Information:
Metadata_Security_Classification_System: None
Metadata_Security_Classification: Unclassified
Metadata_Security_Handling_Description: None

Generated by mp on Fri Sep 29 17:47:59 2000